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King John II naturally declined to enter into a hopeless competition at Rome, and simply ignored the bulls, thus neither admitting their authority nor defying the Church.
Even within Spain influential voices, such as Francisco de Vitoria , had denounced the validity of the Inter caetera. While Spain never gave up its claims based on papal bulls, neither did the Spanish crown seek papal sanctions over the Pacific Ocean line of demarcation.
Rather, Spain negotiated directly with Portugal. Once on the island of Hispaniola, Buil saw the effects of the conquistadors and quarreled with Columbus over the harsh treatment of colonists and Indians.
Seeing that the situation for evangelization and catechizing was impossible, Buil left for Spain, defeated, within six months on 3 December In the 21st century, various groups representing indigenous peoples of the Americas have organised protests and raised petitions seeking the repeal of the papal bull Inter caetera , and to remind Catholic leaders of the record of conquest, disease and slavery in the Americas, sometimes justified in the name of Christianity, which they say has a devastating effect on their cultures today.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Inter Caetera. Two partial meridians are possible, one extending north from a point west of the Azores and another extending south from a point south of the Cape Verde Islands, the two being connected by a north-northwest south-southeast line segment.
Another possibility is a rhumb line west and south of the islands extending north-northwest and south-southeast.
All rhumb lines reach both poles by spiraling into them. International Law in Historical Perspective. Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, — , p.
California State University at Northridge. Empires largest ancient great powers medieval great powers modern great powers European colonialism. Retrieved from " https: Webarchive template wayback links Use dmy dates from May Views Read Edit View history.
This page was last edited on 26 June , at The phrase "first among equals" has also been used to describe the Chief Justice of the United States.
The Chief Justice has considerable administrative powers, and can assign the writing of decisions in cases in which he is in the majority, but has no direct control over the decisions of his colleagues on the Supreme Court of the United States.
This situation is often found in supreme courts around the world. In many private parliamentary bodies, such as clubs, boards, educational faculty, and committees, the officer or member who holds the position of chair or chairman is often regarded as a "first among equals".
That is, while most rules of order will grant the chair special powers within the context of a meeting , the position of chair is usually temporary, rotating, and powerless in other contexts, making the occupant merely a temporary leader required to instil order.
This is the case for mayors under a council—manager government , as the "mayor" has the same vote as all other council members and cannot override them, although their opinion may have more sway among other members.
The phrase "first among equals" is also used to describe the role of the Patriarch of Constantinople , who, as the Ecumenical Patriarch , is the first among all the bishops of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
He has no direct jurisdiction over the other patriarchs or the other autocephalous Orthodox churches and cannot interfere in the election of bishops in autocephalous churches, but he alone enjoys the right of convening extraordinary synods consisting of them or their delegates to deal with ad hoc situations, and he has also convened well-attended Pan-Orthodox Synods in the last forty years.
His title is an acknowledgement of his historic significance and of his privilege to serve as primary spokesman for the Eastern Orthodox Communion.
His moral authority is highly respected. The Eastern Orthodox Church also uses the term "first among equals" in regard to the Bishop of Rome during the first thousand years of Christianity.
The canons relative to the universal primacy of honor of the Patriarch of Constantinople are the 9th canon of the synod of Antioch  and the 28th canon of the Council of Chalcedon.
As such, the Roman Catholic Church does not see the Pope merely as being "first among equals", but as actually holding an office with supreme authority in canon law over all other bishops.
This jurisdictional claim was one of the main causes of the East-West Schism in the Church, which became formal in More commonly, dioceses are geographically grouped in an ecclesiastical province , where only one holds the rank of Metropolitan Archbishop , which outranks his colleagues, who are therefore called his suffragans , even if these include fairly rarely another Archbishop.
In the Anglican Communion , the Archbishop of Canterbury is considered to be "first among equals" in his presidency over the Communion.
Church of Ireland , while the first Primatial see of Canterbury remains primus among them. Based on the antiquity with which ecumenical councils have conceded some kind of universal primacy to the Bishops of Rome, participants in Anglican—Catholic dialogues have acknowledged for decades that the Pope would properly serve as the titular leader of a reunited church; the Anglicans typically have in mind an honorary non-jurisdictional primacy such as the phrase "primus inter pares" implies.
In one example of such acknowledgement, the International Anglican-Catholic Commission for Unity and Mission, in its agreed statement Growing Together in Unity and Mission, "urge[s] Anglicans and Catholics to explore together how the ministry of the Bishop of Rome might be offered and received in order to assist our Communions to grow towards full, ecclesial communion.
The Moderator of the General Assembly in a Presbyterian church is similarly designated as a primus inter pares. As all elders are ordained —some for teaching and some for ruling- none sit in higher status, but all are equal behind the one and only head of the church Jesus Christ.
In each local Harvest Bible Chapel or Vertical Church , the Senior Pastor is an elder who is "first among equals" of the other elders within that local church.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see First Among Equals. For the cognitive bias sometimes known as the " primus inter pares " effect, see illusory superiority.
Prime Minister of Japan. Prime Minister of the Netherlands. President of the Swiss Confederation. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Chief Justice of the United States.
All these forms are exceedingly rare in English usage, however. Retrieved 24 June South China Morning Post. Penguin, , — The presiding Bishop in a metropolis must be recognized by the Bishops belonging to each province or eparchy , and undertakei the cure of the entire province, because of the fact that all who have any kind of business to attend to are wont to come from all quarters to the metropolis.
Hence it has seemed best to let him have precedence in respect of honor, and to let the rest of the Bishops do nothing extraordinary without him, in accordance with the ancient Canon of the Fathers which has been prevailing, or only those things which are imposed upon the parish of each one of them and upon the territories under it.
Everywhere following the decrees of the Holy Fathers, and aware of the recently recognized Canon of the one hundred and fifty most God-beloved Bishops who convened during the reign of Theodosius the Great of pious memory, who became emperor in the imperial city of Constantinople otherwise known as New Rome; we too decree and vote the same things in regard to the privileges and priorities of the most holy Church of that same Constantinople and New Rome.
And this is in keeping with the fact that the Fathers naturally enough granted the priorities to the throne of Old Rome on account of her being the imperial capital.
And motivated by the same object and aim the one hundred and fifty most God-beloved Bishops have accorded the like priorities to the most holy throne of New Rome, with good reason deeming that the city which is the seat of an empire, and of a senate, and is equal to old imperial Rome in respect of other privileges and priorities, should be magnified also as she is in respect of ecclesiastical affairs, as coming next after her, or as being second to her.
The war of the patriarchs", interview with Father Jivko Panev".