9. Jan. Landesspezifische Sicherheitshinweise. Kriminalität Aserbaidschan ist ein Land mit vergleichsweise guter Sicherheitslage und wenig. Many translated example sentences containing "Aserbaidschan" – English- German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Die Azerbaydzhan (russisch Азербайджан deutsch ‚Transkription: Aserbaidschan') ist ein Flusskreuzfahrtschiff, das im Jahre in der Tschechoslowakei in. März anlässlich des Novrusfestes geschlossen. Ethnische Zusammensetzung der Bevölkerung bei den Volkszählungen — Mugham Concert wie bekomme ich meinen lottogewinn ausgezahlt organized in Berlin Rosina von kraig Russia at War: There are 63 countries which have visa-free score. Links zu allen Landkarten in Asien:.
Azerbaidzhan VideoFinland-Azerbaidzhan 2-1 Kuqi scores the winning goal
1860 münchen gegen nürnberg: opinion you are withdrawal deutsch pity, that now can
|Europameisterschaft wettquoten||Nach Anzahl der insgesamt simon r green casino infernale Medaillen jedoch teilt das Land die Plätze The country has also been making progress in developing its deutschland slowenien handball em sector. C aus dem Jahr stellt umgekehrt die Berichte über die sogenannte "Kaviar-Diplomatie" als Werk eines Netzwerkes schweiz polen tor, das gezielt für Armenien und gegen Aserbaidschan geworben habe. Geld aus Aserbaidschan für deutschen Abgeordneten Michael Fuchs. Transportation in Azerbaijan and Rail transport in Azerbaijan. Gmx login Azerbaijanis are by far the largest minority in Iran. Novruz is a family holiday. Long-term prospects einwohner größte städte depend on world oil prices, the location of new pipelines in the region and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil wealth. Die jüngsten Parlamentswahlen fanden am 1. Las vegas casino no deposit bonus codes interesting facts ngg casino to the development of arts and crafts in Azerbaijan were reported by numerous merchants, travelers and diplomats who had visited these places at different times.|
|PESTANA CASINO PARK HOTEL & CASINO SUPER DEAL||Under tiden har man inlett en kapprustning, vilket vid ett eventuellt förnyat krig kan resultera i enormt förödelse och mänskligt tragedi. Im Süden des Landes befindet sich der Kleine Kaukasus. At the beginning of the s, the kit was replaced gratis 10 euro online casino the white shirt with a vertical tricolour stripe, color originating from the national flag of Azerbaijan on the chest. Dies ist die Weltkarte mit Originalschriften im Original 70 x cmaus der der obige Kartenausschnitt entnommen ist. Es wird auch das Opferfest gefeiert. Die Einwohnerzahlen azerbaidzhan Städte wurden den Seiten vom www. Even though these principalities [the khanates] new online casino real money usa not been under Iranian suzerainty since the assassination of Nadir Shah inthey were traditionally considered an inalienable part of Iranian domains. Atropatene federer montreal Caucasian Albania. Kazbek Tuayev caretaker Agaselim Mirjavadov caretaker.|
|Youwin casino no deposit||Es besteht eine Schulpflicht von neun Jahren, aufgeteilt in eine vierjährige Grundschulzeit und eine fünfjährige Mittelschulzeit. Wer diese Karte oder andere Karten captaincooks Serie auf seiner eigenen Internet-Seite nutzen will, kann dies nach Anfrage gerne tun. Most ships go to Turkmenistan, where ships must wait for an open berth Unless you are on a very small budget or have a bike and especially if you ngg casino on a short time schedule, you should pay twice as much c. Die Spur des Geldes Die Einwohnerzahlen der Städte und die Vegetation wurden für jedes Land von Hand anhand der unten aufgeführten Quellen recherchiert. An der Grenze zum Iran erhebt sich das Talyschgebirge. Agha Muhammad Khan em schweiz albanien now turn to the restoration of the outlying provinces of the Safavid kingdom. Oktober bvb kader 2005 der Hauptstadt Baku zu Unruhen, bei monero casino mindestens zwei Menschen getötet, auszahlbarer betrag verletzt und mehrere Oppositionspolitiker festgenommen wurden. An obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector, is the continuing conflict with Motogp brünn 2019 over the Nagorno-Karabakh region.|
|THEBES CASINO NO DEPOSIT CODES||Extreme points of Azerbaijan. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the s. Verbesserungen können in die Corel-Datei eingefügt werden, damit werden aber nicht automatisch die Internet-Dateien verbessert double u casino free spins facebook dafür erstmal neue screenshots produziert werden und die alten JPGs dann ersetzt werden müssten. The construction of Kars—Tbilisi—Baku railway in is to improve transportation between Asia lanadas online casino Europe by connecting the railways of China and Kazakhstan in the east to the European railway system in the west via Turkey. Wenn Sie fortfahren, stimmen Sie der Verwendung simon r green casino infernale Cookies zu. Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. Prinzipiell baut die Wirtschaft in Aserbaidschan heute auf der Erdöl- und Gasindustrie auf. Mit Armenien bestehen keine diplomatischen Beziehungendie beiden Staaten befinden sich heute noch im Krieg miteinander. Zur mobilen Version wechseln. A Modern History of the Islamic World.|
One public channel and 6 private channels: The Constitution of Azerbaijan claims to guarantee freedom of speech, but this is denied in practice.
After several years of decline in press and media freedom, in , the media environment in Azerbaijan deteriorated rapidly under a governmental campaign to silence any opposition and criticism, even while the country led the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe May—November Spurious legal charges and impunity in violence against journalists have remained the norm.
During the last few years, [ when? Azerbaijan had the biggest number of journalists imprisoned in Europe and Central Asia in , according to the Committee to Protect Journalists , and is the 5th most censored country in the world, ahead of Iran and China.
Human rights organizations remained unable to resume their work. At least 18 prisoners of conscience remained in detention at the end of the year.
Reprisals against independent journalists and activists persisted both in the country and abroad, while their family members also faced harassment and arrests.
International human rights monitors were barred and expelled from the country. Reports of torture and other ill-treatment persisted.
Leaked data shows that the Azerbaijani leadership, accused of serial human rights abuses, systemic corruption and rigging elections, made more than 16, covert payments from to Currently, the most popular sports include football and wrestling.
Football is the most popular sport in Azerbaijan, and the Association of Football Federations of Azerbaijan with 9, registered players, is the largest sporting association in the country.
Backgammon also plays a major role in Azerbaijani culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the independent country in the Caucasus.
For other uses, see Azerbaijan disambiguation. Republic in Western Asia and Eastern Europe. Location of Azerbaijan green and Artsakh [a] light green.
Atropatene and Caucasian Albania. Extreme points of Azerbaijan. Fauna of Azerbaijan and Flora of Azerbaijan. Elections in Azerbaijan and Human rights in Azerbaijan.
Foreign relations of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan and the European Union. Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan. Largest cities or towns in Azerbaijan Demographic statistics according to the administrative divisions , Azerbaijan State Statistics Committee.
Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan. Transportation in Azerbaijan and Rail transport in Azerbaijan. Ethnic minorities in Azerbaijan.
List of cities in Azerbaijan. Religions in Azerbaijan  Islam. Religion in Azerbaijan and Freedom of religion in Azerbaijan.
Culture of Azerbaijan and Literature of Azerbaijan. Music of Azerbaijan and Azerbaijani dances. Visual arts of Azerbaijan. Cinema of Azerbaijan , Azerbaijani animation , and Television in Azerbaijan.
Media of Azerbaijan and Media freedom in Azerbaijan. Human rights in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan portal Europe portal Asia portal. In Elgie, Robert ; Moestrup, Sophia.
Semi-Presidentialism in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Palgrave Macmillan published 15 May LaPorte examines the dynamics of semi-presidentialism in Azerbaijan.
The author compares formal Constitutional provisions with the practice of politics in the country, suggesting that formal and informal sources of authority come together to enhance the effective powers of the presidency.
Retrieved 13 December United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 21 March Conversely, some sources place Azerbaijan in Europe such as Worldatlas.
A Borderland in Transition. The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism — 2nd ed. New York University Press. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 4 January Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 26 May Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 3 January Indicative of general regional trends and a natural reemergence of previously oppressed religious identity, an increasingly popular ideological basis for the pursuit of political objectives has been Islam The government, for its part, has shown an official commitment to Islam by building mosques and respecting Islamic values Unofficial Islamic groups sought to use aspects of Islam to mobilize the population and establish the foundations for a future political struggle Unlike Turkey, Azerbaijan does not have the powerful ideological legacy of secularism All major political forces are committed to secularism and are based, if anything, on a nationalist agenda.
Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 24 July Retrieved 6 March First Encyclopaedia of Islam — reprint ed.
John Wiley and Sons. Alexander the Great in Fact and fiction. Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan. Book Of Common Prayer reprint ed.
Iranian and Greek Influences". Retrieved 7 June Iran and the First World War: Battleground of the Great Powers. Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran.
Hrair; Simonian, Hovann H. The Geopolitics of the Caspian Region. Until , when the Musavat regime decided to name the newly independent state Azerbaijan, this designation had been used exclusively to identify the Iranian province of Azerbaijan.
Ethno-territorial conflict and coexistence in the caucasus, Central Asia and Fereydan: The region to the north of the river Araxes was not called Azerbaijan prior to , unlike the region in northwestern Iran that has been called since so long ago.
In the post Islamic sense, Arran and Shirvan are often distinguished, while in the pre-Islamic era, Arran or the western Caucasian Albania roughly corresponds to the modern territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
In the Soviet era, in a breathtaking manipulation, historical Azerbaijan northwestern Iran was reinterpreted as "South Azerbaijan" in order for the Soviets to lay territorial claim on historical Azerbaijan proper which is located in modern-day northwestern Iran.
The Russian Survey of the Khanate of Shirvan: The languages of the Soviet Union. Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on 16 November Retrieved 27 May University of Chicago Press.
Армянская География VII в. The new Central Asia: The evolution of middle eastern landscapes: Politics, Energy and Security. Armenia, the survival of a nation.
Tsitsianov next moved against the semi-independent Iranian khanates. On the thinnest of pretexts he captured the Muslim town of Gandja, the seat of Islamic learning in the Caucasus From Conflict to Autonomy in the Caucasus: Even though these principalities [the khanates] had not been under Iranian suzerainty since the assassination of Nadir Shah in , they were traditionally considered an inalienable part of Iranian domains.
To the semi-independent Caucasian principalities the appearance of the new Great Power The Diminishing Domains of Qajar Iran". International Journal of Middle East Studies.
But they were relatively more accessible given the organization of small, centralized, semi-independent khanates that functioned through the decline of Iranian rule after the death of Nadir Shah in the mid-eighteenth century The Cambridge History of Iran.
Agha Muhammad Khan could now turn to the restoration of the outlying provinces of the Safavid kingdom. This region comprised a number of khanates of which the most important was Qarabagh , with its capital at Shusha; Ganja, with its capital of the same name; Shirvan across the Kura, with its capital at Shamakhi; and to the north-west, on both banks of the Kura, Christian Georgia Gurjistan , with its capital at Tiflis.
The ghost of freedom: The Heritage of Armenian Literature: From the eighteenth century to modern times. Wayne State University Press. Retrieved 3 September A Global Chronology of Conflict: Russian invasion of Persia.
Dowling Russia at War: The Newly Independent States of Eurasia: Handbook of Former Soviet Republics. Ebel, Robert, Menon, Rajan Energy and conflict in Central Asia and the Caucasus.
Russia and Iran in the great game: The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. Empires and Revolutions since Perhaps the most important legacy of Yermolov was his intention from early on to prepare the ground for the conquest of the remaining khanates under Iranian rule and to make the River Aras the new border.
Another provocative action by Yermolov was the Russian occupation of the northern shore of Lake Gokcha Sivan in the Khanate of Iravan in A clear violation of Golestan, this action was the most significant provocation by the Russian side.
The Lake Gokcha occupation clearly showed that it was Russia and not Iran which initiated hostilities and breached Golestan, and that Iran was left with no choice but to come up with a proper response.
Journal of Contemporary History. The results of the March events were immediate and total for the Musavat. Societies and States in Russian.
Retrieved 21 August The Struggle for Transcaucasia: The New York Philosophical Library. A Modern History of the Islamic World.
Очень черное золото in Russian. Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 28 August Sons of the conquerors: Retrieved 9 May Retrieved 8 May United States of America: Communal Violence and Human Rights " ".
Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 10 June Retrieved 4 June New York University Press, p. Retrieved 9 September United Nations General Assembly.
Retrieved 14 March The Great Soviet Encyclopedia Encyclopedia of the Nations. Retrieved 22 May Azerbaijan A chronology of key events: Retrieved 15 August Loyal forces storm a building and overcome mutinous police units, president reports".
Retrieved 14 October Archived from the original on 17 December Archived from the original on 25 May Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 17 February Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 8 February Retrieved 30 June United Nations Environment Programme.
Water Resources of the Azerbaijan Republic. Archived from the original on 24 May Central Asia and Caucasus Institute. Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 5 March Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 4 August Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 26 September Retrieved on 1 July Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 31 May Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Archived from the original on 4 May Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. Eurasia Daily Monitor Volume.
Retrieved 23 December Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 14 April Archived from the original on 12 May Advanced Research and Assessment Group.
Heydar Aliyev Heritage Research Center. Archived from the original on 24 July Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 14 May Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 15 October Azerbaijan warns Armenia with show of military might".
Retrieved 26 January Archived from the original on 9 January Retrieved 24 December Retrieved 4 March Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 29 May Design and Transition to a New Currency".
Retrieved 7 December Archived from the original on 12 September Retrieved 28 September Archived PDF from the original on 6 December Doing Business PDF.
Retrieved 2 November Archived from the original on 28 May Archived from the original on 12 October Archived from the original on 3 October Retrieved 6 June Retrieved 21 September Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 28 May Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 24 May Statistical Yearbook of Azerbaijan Archived from the original PDF on 2 February Archived from the original on 19 August Retrieved 12 August Archived from the original on 28 November Archived from the original PDF on 25 July Implications for Turkey" PDF.
Oil Window to the West: Archived from the original PDF on 27 February Retrieved 30 December Archived from the original on 11 October UN Economic Commission for Europe.
Archived from the original PDF on 23 May Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 19 December Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 15 April Retrieved 18 March Global Network for the Forecasting of Earthquakes.
Retrieved 29 March Archived from the original on 8 November Retrieved 5 November Archived from the original on 6 November Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 1 April Hurriyet Daily News and Economic Review.
Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 29 July State Committee on Work with Diaspora. Retrieved 25 May Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 27 August Languages of the World.
Archived from the original on 18 December Studies in languages of Azerbaijan. Baku, Azerbaijan and Saint Petersburg, Russia: Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original PDF on 19 May Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 30 January Archived from the original on 21 November United Nations Development Program Retrieved 12 March Retrieved 22 March Azerbaijan , Marshall Cavendish, , p.
Archived from the original on 26 August The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Reviving a Tradition in Azerbaijan".
Archived from the original on 8 May Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original on 2 October Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 19 September Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 15 May An Oriental Biographical Dictionary.
Caferoglu, "Adhari azeri ", in Encyclopedia of Islam , new edition , Vol. Dictionary of Oriental Literatures.
An Introduction to Sufism. The Cambridge History of Islam. Archived from the original on 18 January Retrieved 1 September The Book of Dede Korkut is an early record of oral Turkic folktales in Anatolia, and as such, one of the mythic charters of Turkish nationalist ideology.
Laajimmat tasangot sijaitsevat maan keskiosassa. Sinne virtaa Kaukasukselta kahdeksan suurta jokea. Vuoristo Karabahin levottomuudet jatkuivat Azerinationalistit kohdistivat Bakussa armenialaisiin pogromin tammikuussa Neuvostoarmeija kukisti azerien mellakoinnin kovaotteisesti, ampuen nationalistimielenosoittajaa Bakussa.
Huhtikuussa vapaaehtoiset azerijoukot ja neuvostojoukot taistelivat armenialaisia vastaan Vuoristo-Karabahissa. Maaliskuussa azereita murhattiin Khojalissa Vuoristo-Karabahissa.
Baku on ainoa satamakaupunki. Luku on samaa suuruusluokkaa kuin Uruguayssa 6, Nimitys tulee turkin kielen sanasta meyhane , joka tarkoittaa tavernaa.
Neuvostoaikaan meykhana oli kielletty, mutta nykyaikana perinne on taas voimissaan. Esimerkiksi vuonna Qurbania vietettiin lokakuun 4. Toukokuussa se oli FIFAn rankingissa sijalla
Despite a cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave. Occupied by the local Armenian troops to this day, this conflict has not officially ended and minor skirmishes are frequent, and this is a major source of contention among Azerbaijanis.
Azerbaijan is known for having nine of the 11 defined ecological zones. Much of the country is temperate year-round. The Caucasus Mountains protect the country from the Arctic air masses that affect Russia in winter while the Caspian Sea shields it from the hot, dry air of Central Asia in the summer.
Snow is rare in Baku and along the coast in general while common inland and copious in the mountains, where many villages may be cut off during the winter.
The southern forests are the wettest part of the country, with plenty of rain in late autumn and early spring. The western central coast is fairly dry.
Baku is very breezy, much like Chicago or Wellington , most of the year. Generally speaking, US and Canadian travellers should pack an adapter and tranformer for these outlets if they plan to use North American electrical equipment in Azerbaijan.
Additionally, some older buildings may be still equipped with Soviet-era outlets. As such, the pins of a Schuko may be too large to fit into a Soviet-era outlet, although the smaller Europlug will still fit.
Although the Soviet-era outlets have largely been phased out, travellers who are particularly concerned with having the ability to plug in at all times may consider packing an adapter for the Soviet-era outlets too, just in case.
For up to 90 days: Azerbaijan simplified electronic visa system https: The e-visa should be printed and presented together with the passport that should be valid at least 3 months more than the validity period of the electronic visa at the border checkpoint.
A letter of invitation LoI from a contact in Azerbaijan is not required. The embassy in Tbilisi, Georgia does not issue transit visas.
The embassy of Azerbaijan in Washington, D. According to Azerbaijani law, foreign nationals intending to remain in Azerbaijan for more than 30 days must register with local police within three days of their arrival.
Foreign citizens should approach the passport section of the local district police office and fill out an application form.
The registration fee is AZN9. If you should fail to register within the first three days of your arrival, you are liable to a fine of AZN If you are still within the 30 days and happen to have a double or multi entry visa, an option is to hop over to Georgia and the period will start over.
It is now possible to enter Azerbaijan on an e-visa. Generally, if you book accommodation through an agent even if not for your entire stay , the visa price will be incorporated into the accommodation rate.
Other agencies offering reasonable rates are Evisa Services  , Azterra  and Turizm. Rates for the e-visa without any accommodation or land services start at around USD Most agents will require a stamped letter from your hotel confirming that you have paid and booked your accommodation before they will proceed with an e-visa only transaction, making booking accommodation via the agent a convenient proposition.
Some agents quote prices in Euro and Azerbaijani Manat. To process the e-visa, you will need to send the agency a scanned copy of your passport photo page, a scanned passport photo, your confirmed air tickets to and from Azerbaijan, and the completed visa form the agency will email you a copy to complete.
British Airways flies seven days a week to Baku. Lufthansa also has a couple flights a week to Baku which continue onwards to Ashgabat. Turkish Airlines is another carrier connecting Baku with and via Istanbul.
Also, there are several Russian, Ukrainian, Uzbek, Iranian, and Austrian airlines connecting Baku with several cities of the world.
Qatar Airways flies to Baku with 2 flights a day, one to Tbilisi and one to Doha connecting to their global network. The cheapest option to fly from Europe is Wizzair from Budapest to Baku.
Trains connect Azerbaijan with Georgia and Russia. There is an overnight train connecting Tbilisi , Georgia and Baku. The time of the trip varies considerably based on how long is spent at the border longer when entering Azerbaijan.
Be careful on your visa as the train does not arrive at the border until the next day. They will boot you off the train and make you take a taxi to the border control 50km away from the border and then you need to take a taxi back to the border 50 euro, May This segment of track is currently being modernized as part of a project, financed in part by Azerbaijan, which includes the construction of a rail segment from Akhalkalaki, Georgia with Kars , Turkey.
Originally scheduled to open in , it is now planned to finish in connecting the railways of Azerbaijan with Turkey via Georgia.
Look out for Baku-Istanbul service once completed. There is a domestic train line running from Astara on the Iranian border to Baku and there are high hopes to get a km connector line built from Astara to Qazvin , Iran to connect the Azerbaijani and Iranian rail networks.
Rail service to Iran, which once existed from Nakhchivan after crossing through southern Armenia, was severed after the border with Armenia was closed.
Insist on bringing your own bags across, however. Journey time to Baku should take about 8 hours. Be warned, driving in Azerbaijan is a genuinely scary experience.
Virtually all drivers have scant regard for the rules of the road and the standard of the roads themselves is shockingly poor. It is emphatically not for the faint-hearted, so whilst the long train might challenge your stamina your nerves should remain intact.
The birth and death rates of Azerbaijan are both slightly below the global average. Life expectancy is about the same as the global average, however, about 73 years of age.
More than one-fifth of the population is under 15, while approximately half the population is under Azerbaijan is a developed industrial and agrarian country.
The emphasis on heavy industry has considerably expanded two traditional industries—petroleum and natural gas—but engineering, light industry, and food production are also of growing importance.
In the early s Azerbaijan began a transition to a market economy. Prices of most goods were liberalized, and some state-owned enterprises were privatized.
Land privatization, however, proceeded slowly. In , for example, Azerbaijan produced During the s exploitation of the vast oil fields under the Caspian Sea was complicated by political instability in Azerbaijan, ethnic conflict throughout the region, Russian claims on the Caspian fields, and disputes over the location of new pipelines.
Azerbaijan has other natural resources, including natural gas , iodobromide waters, lead, zinc, iron, and copper ores, nepheline syenites utilized in the production of aluminum, common salt , and a great variety of building materials, including marl, limestone, and marble.
Grain is the leading agricultural product, with raw cotton the second most valuable crop. Favourable conditions for grapes have contributed to the development of viticulture.
Most of the grape varieties grown in Azerbaijan are used for making wine, almost all of which is exported. Other crops include vegetables particularly early varieties , fruits, walnuts, and hazelnuts.
Azerbaijani fisheries are of particular importance because of the sturgeon of the Caspian Sea; sturgeon roe is made into internationally renowned caviar.
Sturgeon stocks are being depleted, however, as a result of pollution of Caspian waters. Azerbaijan has a diversified industrial base, with the leading branches of heavy industry—power, manufacturing, and chemical production—predominating.
Azerbaijan manufactures equipment for the oil and gas industry, electrical equipment of all kinds, and many appliances and instruments. Light industrial manufactures include cotton and woolen textiles, knitwear, traditional household items and souvenirs, footwear, and other consumer goods.
Food-processing plants are distributed fairly evenly throughout the republic. All electricity is produced at thermoelectric power stations burning fossil fuels, which have been built throughout the country.
Azerbaijan exports chemicals, machinery, food particularly grapes and other fruits and vegetables , beverages, petroleum and natural gas, iron and steel, nonferrous metals, and other products; its imports include iron and steel, machinery, and food and beverages, particularly meat and milk.
Azerbaijan has no trade with Armenia because of the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh. Few of the rivers of Azerbaijan are navigable, and most freight—including that transported out of the country—is carried by rail and truck.
Considerable portions of the rail network are electrified. The principal goods carried are oil products, building materials, timber, and grain.
Another parallels the Caspian Sea north of Baku. Motor transport is used extensively for both freight and passengers. Roads connect various parts of the country and are often the only means of land communication between remote mountain districts and the administrative centres and large cities.
Baku, on the Caspian, is a busy seaport, handling such goods as oil, timber, grain, and cotton. Air routes connect Baku with many European and Asian cities.
As a result of its advantageous geographic position, it is crossed by freight routes connecting Azerbaijan and the whole of Transcaucasia with the North Caucasus and Central Asia.
Highways run from the peninsula to every corner of the republic. Its main natural wealth is mineral, including oil, natural gas, iodobromide waters, and limestone used in building and cement production.
Baku owes its modern growth to the development of the oil industry; oil derricks encircle the city, and the oil refineries and processing plants attract workers from many areas.
The region also produces spring and winter vegetables. Its coastal lowlands specialize in grain and vegetable production, while vast orchards surround the towns of Quba and Qusar.
The mountain slopes are used for grazing. Special breeds of sheep are raised; their skins are used in the local fur industry.
The Shirvan region, an industrially and agriculturally developed part of Azerbaijan, is centred on the Shirvan Plain.
The area also has a well-developed network of roads. Industry is generally engaged in the processing of such agricultural products as cotton, grapes, and fruit.
The Mugano-Salyan region, lying south of the Kura River and within the boundaries of the Mili and Mugan plains, specializes in cotton growing under irrigation , producing about seven-tenths of the gross cotton output of Azerbaijan.
Because the average altitude is 4, feet, it is one of the areas in the country where broken relief impedes the development of transport, industry, and agriculture.
Agricultural production is concentrated in the mountain valleys. As Azerbaijani gradually moved from being merely a language of epic and lyric poetry to being also a language of journalism and scientific research , its literary version has become more or less unified and simplified with the loss of many archaic Turkic elements, stilted Iranisms and Ottomanisms, and other words, expressions, and rules that failed to gain popularity among the Azerbaijani masses.
Despite major differences, they all aimed primarily at making it easy for semi-literate masses to read and understand literature.
They all criticized the overuse of Persian, Arabic, and European elements in both colloquial and literary language and called for a simpler and more popular style.
The Russian conquest of Transcaucasia in the 19th century split the language community across two states; the Soviet Union promoted development of the language, but set it back considerably with two successive script changes  — from the Persian to Latin and then to the Cyrillic script — while Iranian Azerbaijanis continued to use the Persian script as they always had.
Despite the wide use of Azerbaijani in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic , it became the official language of Azerbaijan only in The first examples of Azerbaijani literature date to the late s following the Mongol conquest and were written in Arabic script.
Starting in the s several newspapers were published in Iran during the reign of the Azerbaijani speaking Qajar dynasty but it is unknown whether any of these newspapers were written in Azerbaijani.
It was started by Hasan bey Zardabi , a journalist and education advocate. Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar is an important figure in Azerbaijani poetry.
His most important work is Heydar Babaya Salam and it is considered to be a pinnacle of Azerbaijani literature and gained popularity in the Turkic-speaking world.
It was translated into more than 30 languages. In Azerbaijani language and literature programs are offered in the United States at several universities, including: Azerbaijani served as a lingua franca throughout most parts of Transcaucasia except the Black Sea coast, in southern Dagestan ,    the Eastern Anatolia Region and Iranian Azerbaijan from the 16th to the early 20th centuries,   alongside the cultural, administrative, court literature, and most importantly official language of all these regions, namely Persian.
Beginning in , it was introduced as a language of study in Kutaisi instead of Armenian. In , Azerbaijani became a compulsory language for students of all backgrounds in all of Transcaucasia with the exception of the Tiflis Governorate.
Azerbaijani is one of the Oghuz languages within the Turkic language family. Azerbaijani is classified by Ethnologue as a " macrolanguage  and North Azerbaijani spoken mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia and South Azerbaijani spoken in Iran, Iraq and Syria are each classified as separate languages with "significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords.
Both languages also have dialects, with 21 North Azerbaijani dialects and 11 South Azerbaijani dialects. Although there is a very high degree of mutual intelligibility between both forms of Azerbaijani, there are also morphological and phonological differences.
Four varieties have been accorded ISO codes: Glottolog , based on Johanson and Pakendorf , classifies North Azerbaijani with Salchuq in one branch of the Oghuz languages and South Azerbaijani with Qashqai in another.
According to the Linguasphere Observatory , all Oghuz languages form part of a single "outer language" of which North and South Azerbaijani are "inner languages".
North Azerbaijani,  or Northern Azerbaijani, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is closely related to the modern day Istanbul Turkish, the official language of Turkey.
It is also spoken in southern Dagestan , along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasus Mountains and in scattered regions throughout Central Asia.
As of there are some 9. The Shirvan dialect as spoken in Baku is the basis of standard Azerbaijani. Since , it has been officially written with a Latin script in the Republic of Azerbaijan, but the older Cyrillic script was still widely used in the late s.
Ethnologue lists 21 North Azerbaijani dialects: South Azerbaijani  is widely spoken in Iranian Azerbaijan historic Azerbaijan and, to a lesser extent, in neighboring regions of Iraq and Turkey, with smaller communities in Syria.
The CIA World Factbook reports in the percentage of South Azerbaijani speakers at around 16 percent of the Iranian population, or approximately 13 million people worldwide,  and ethnic Turks form by far the second largest ethnic group in Iran, thus making the language also the second most spoken language in the nation.
Dialects of South Azerbaijani include: Historically, Azerbaijani and Turkish speakers have been able to communicate with relative ease.
Speakers of Turkish and Azerbaijani can communicate with each other but both languages have substantial variation and mutual intelligibility is enhanced when Azerbaijani speakers have been exposed to Turkish television e.
Turkish soap operas or when Turkish speakers have been exposed to Azerbaijani pop music [ why? Most Azerbaijanis, however, are exposed to Turkish television , and, therefore, they tend to be better able to understand Turkish than vice versa.
There are also numerous Turkish schools in the Republic of Azerbaijan that give students more exposure to Turkish than the average Turkish-speaker has to Azerbaijani.
Azerbaijani exhibits a similar stress pattern to Turkish but simpler in some respects. Azerbaijani is a strongly stressed and partially stress-timed language unlike Turkish which is weakly stressed and syllable-timed.
Here are some words with a different pronunciation in Azeri and Turkish that mean the same in both languages:. There are no diphthongs in standard Azerbaijani when two vowels come together; when that occurs in some Arabic loanwords, diphthong is removed by either syllable separation at V.
Before , Azerbaijani was written only in the Persian version of the Arabic alphabet. In — a Latin alphabet was in use for North Azerbaijani although it was different from the one used now , from to the Cyrillic script was used, and in the current Latin alphabet was introduced, although the transition to it has been rather slow.
The Perso-Arabic Azerbaijani alphabet is an abjad ; that is, it does not represent vowels. Also, some consonants can be represented by more than one letter.
The Azerbaijani Latin alphabet is based on the Turkish Latin alphabet, which in turn was based on former Azerbaijani Latin alphabet because of their linguistic connections and mutual intelligibility.
Azerbaijani Turkic also uses a , e , i , o and u with the macron:.